Yellow fever vaccine is a vaccine that protects against yellow fever.Yellow fever is a viral infection that occurs in Africa and South America. About 99% of people develop immunity within one month of vaccination and this appears to be lifelong. The vaccine can be used to control outbreaks of disease. It is given either by injection into a muscle or just under the skin.
The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends routine immunization in all countries where the disease is common. This should typically occur between nine and twelve months of age. Those travelling to areas where the disease occurs should also be immunized.Additional doses after the first are generally not needed.
Yellow fever vaccine is generally safe. This includes in those with HIV infection but without symptoms. Mild side effects may include headache, muscle pains, pain at the injection site, fever, and rash. Severe allergies occur in about eight per million doses, serious neurological problems occur in about four per million doses, and organ failure occurs in about three per million doses. It is likely safe in pregnancy and therefore recommended among those who will be potentially exposed.It should not be given to those with very poor immune function.
Yellow fever vaccine came into use in 1938. It is on the World Health Organization’s List of Essential Medicines, the most effective and safe medicines needed in a health system. The wholesale price in the developing world is between US$4.30 and US$21.30 per dose as of 2014. In the United States it costs between US$50 and US$100. The vaccine is made from weakened yellow fever virus. Some countries require a yellow fever vaccination certificate before entry from a country where the disease is common.
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